The Fountain of Health™ offers evidence-based approaches to promote brain health and resilience. Below are our peer-reviewed publications on The Fountain of Health™ approach. The evidence behind the five areas of the Fountain of Health™ are also included: Physical Activity, Social Activity, Brain Activity, Mental Health, and Positive Thinking.

Fountain of Health Publications

The Fountain of Health: Bringing Seniors' Mental Health Promotion into Clinical Practice, Vanessa Thoo, Janya Freer, Keri-Leigh Cassidy, in Canadian Geriatrics Journal, Vol 19, Issue 4, December 2015 p 217-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5770/cgj.18.197

Book Review: “Geriatric Depression: A Clinical Guide”, Keri-Leigh Cassidy, in Canadian Journal of Aging, Vol 35, Issue 3 May 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0714980816000349

Age-Friendly Communities Initiative: Public Health Approach to Promoting Successful Aging, Dilip V. Jeste, Keri-Leigh Cassidy et al., American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 24 Issue 12 Dec 2016 p 1158-1170. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2016.07.021

Toward psychosocial health in age-friendly communities: The Fountain of Health Peer-Led Education Series, Amy Gough, Keri-Leigh Cassidy, in Mental Health and Prevention, 2017; 8: 2017, pp 14-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhp.2017.08.002

Book Chapter: “Positive Psychiatry”, Keri-Leigh Cassidy, Beverley Cassidy, Book chapter in Advances in Psychiatry, Edited by Dr. K. Fountoulakis and A. Javed, Springer Nature, 2018. 

The Fountain of Health: Effective Health Promotion Knowledge Transfer in Individual Primary Care and Group Community-based Formats, Amy Gough, Beverley Cassidy, Kiran Rabheru, David Conn, Keri-Leigh Cassidy, in International Psychogeriatrics, Positive Psychiatry Special Edition, 2018. DOI: 10.1017/S1041610218000480. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610218000480



Improving Seniors' Brain Health, One Habit at a Time
A blog by invitation posted on the Centre for Aging and Brain Health Innovation website about the Fountain of Health™ and Brain Health and Wellness project.

“Aging Well,” K.L. Cassidy, Maritime Noon episode CBC radio, February 28th 2019
CBC radio call-in program hosted by Bob Murphy. The segment on “Aging Well” begins at 16min :09 seconds with Dr. Keri-Leigh Cassidy on the Fountain of Health™, a national initiative on the science of key modifiable lifestyle factors that promote successful aging, and fielding questions and comments from callers. Essential components for aging successfully described include remaining physically, socially, cognitively aging, taking care of mental health and our outlook.      


5 Evidence Areas

Physical Activity

Angevaren M, et al. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;3:CD005381.
Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005381.pub3/abstract

Livingston G, et al., Dementia prevention, intervention, and care. Lancet 2017;390(10113):2673-2734
Online: https://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/journal/1-s2.0-S0140673617313636

McNamara D. Physical Fitness Tied to a Nearly 90% Reduction in Dementia Risk. Medscape 2018.
Online: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/894032*

Nagamatsu LS, et al. Resistance training promotes cognitive and functional brain plasticity in seniors with probable mild cognitive impairment. Arch Intern Med 2012;172(8):666-668.
Online: http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1135414

Wallace LMK, et al. Investigation of frailty as a moderator of the relationship between neuropathology and dementia in Alzheimer’s disease: a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Lancet Neurol 2019;18(2):177-184.
Online: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laneur/article/PIIS1474-4422(18)30371-5/fulltext

Wen CP, et al. Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 2011;378(9798):1244-1253.
Online: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(11)60749-6/fulltext

Wolff JK et al. What do targeting positive views on aging add to a physical activity intervention in older adults? Results from a randomized control trial. Health Psychology 2014; 29(8): 915-923.

Social Activity

Bennett DA,  et al. The effect of social networks on the relation between Alzheimer’s disease pathology and level of cognitive function in old people: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet Neurol 2006;5(5):406–412.
Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70417-3

Chang PJ, et al. Social relationships, leisure activity, and health in older adults. Health Psychol 2014;33(6):516-523.
Online: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4467537/

Gilmour H. “Social participation and the health and well-being of Canadian seniors.” Stats Can Catalogue 82-003-X 2012.
Online: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-003-x/2012004/article/11720-eng.htm

Flatt J, et al. Participation in social activities in later life: does enjoyment have important implications for cognitive health? Aging Health 2013;9(2)149-158.
Online: http://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/abs/10.2217/ahe.13.11*

Waldinger R, et al. (2015). Security of attachment to spouses in late life: Concurrent and prospective links with cognitive and emotional well-being. Clin Psychol Sci 2015;3(4):516-529.
Online: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26413428

Brain Challenge

Butler M, et al. Does cognitive training prevent cognitive decline?: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2018;168(1):63-68.
Online: https://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/2666420/does-cognitive-training-prevent-cognitive-decline-systematic-review

Miller KJ, et al. Effect of a computerized brain exercise program on cognitive performance in older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2013;21(7):655-63.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23602310*

Steffener et al. Differences between chronological & brain age are related to education and self-reported physical activity. Neurobiol Aging. 2016; 1(40):138-44.
Online: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0197458016000233?via%3Dihub

Valenzuela M, et al. Can cognitive exercise prevent the onset of dementia? Systematic review of randomized clinical trials with longitudinal follow-up. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry  2009;17(3):179-87.
Online: http://rng.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/2009-Can-Cognitive-Exercise-Prevent-the-Onset-of-Dementia-Systematic-Review-of-Randomized-Clinical-Trials-with-Longitudinal-Follow-up.pdf

Positive Thinking

Levy B, et al. Longitudinal benefit of positive self-perceptions of aging on functional health. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2002;57(5):409-417.
Online: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/57/5/P409.short*

Levy B, et al. Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging. J Pers Soc Psychol 2002; 83(2): 261-270.
Online: http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/psp-832261.pdf

Levy B, et al. Positive age beliefs protect against dementia even among elders with high-risk gene. PLOS One 2018;13(2): e0191004
Online: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191004

Levy B, et al. Ageism amplifies cost and prevalence of health conditions. The Gerontologist 2018; XX(XX):1-8.
Online: https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gny131

Robertson DA, Kenny RA. Negative perceptions of aging modify the association between frailty and cognitive function in older adults. J Individ Differ 2016;100:120–125.
Online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.12.010

Sun J, et al. Positive self-perceptions of aging and lower rate of overnight hospitalization in the US population over age 50. Psychosomatic medicine 2016;79(1):81-90.
Online: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5182096/

Wurm S, et al. How do negative self-perceptions of aging become a self-fulfilling prophecy? Psychol Aging 2013; 28(4): 1088-1097.
Online: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-35546-001/

Mental Health

Grossman P, et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta analysis. J Psychosom Res 2004;57(1):35-43.
Online: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0022399903005737?...

Jeste DV, Palmer BW. A call for a new positive psychiatry of aging. Br J Psychiatry 2013; 20(2); 81-83.
Online: http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/202/2/81

Jeste DV, et al. Older age is associated with more successful aging: role of resilience and depression. Am J Psychiatry 2013; 170(2): 188-196.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3593664/

Prince M, et al. Dementia & risk reduction: An analysis of protective & modifiable factors. London: Alzheimer’s Disease International (ADI); 2014 p.1-204
Online: https://www.alz.co.uk/research/WorldAlzheimerReport2014.pdf