Evidence Base

At the Fountain of Health we strive to bring you evidence-based information on healthy aging.  Here are references for each area of the Positive Aging section of the site. Please feel free to contact us if you know of an article or reference you think we should be aware of.

References marked with an asterisk (*) may require an account with the journal or website to access the full article.

Positive Thinking

Bennett T, et al. Believing what you hear: The impact of aging stereotypes upon the old. Educ Gerontol 2010;36(5):435-445.
Online: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03601270903212336*

Gatz M, et al. Empirically validated psychological treatments for older adults. Aging Ment Health 1998;4(1):9-46.
Online: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1999-05774-001*

Herskind AM, et al. Heritability of human longevity: A population based study of 2872 Danish twin pairs born 1870 -1900. Hum Genet 1996; 97: 319-23.
Online: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Niels_Holm2/publication/14416947_The_heritability_of_human_longevity_a_population-based_study_of_2872_Danish_twin_pairs_born_1870-1900/links/53df9ac40cf2aede4b4915a0.pdf

Levy B. Mind matters: Cognitive and physical effects of aging self-stereotypes. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2003;58(4):203-211.
Online: http://www.iub.edu/~ltcmgt/module1/unit2/pdf/levy.pdf

Levy B, et al. Longitudinal benefit of positive self-perceptions of aging on functional health. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2002;57(5):409-417.
Online: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/57/5/P409.short*

Levy B, et al. Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging. J Pers Soc Psychol 2002;83(2):261-270.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12150226*

Levy B. Mind matters: cognitive and physical effects of aging self stereotypes. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences 2003; 58(4): 203-211.
Online: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/58/4/P203.full

Levy B, et al. Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2002; 83(2): 261-270.
Online: http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/psp-832261.pdf

Levy BR, Slade MD, Kunkel SR, et al. Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2002; 83(2): 261-270.
Online: http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/psp-832261.pdf

Miller M. Using interpersonal therapy (IPT) with older adults today and tomorrow: a review of the literature and new developments. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2008;10(1):16-22.
Online: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11920-008-0005-6#page-1*

Padesky CA & Mooney KA. Strengths-based cognitive-behavioral therapy: a four-step model to build resilience. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 2012; 19: 283-290.
Online: http://www.iupui.edu/~mswd/D642/multimedia/word_doc/Strengths%20based%20CBT.pdf

Payman V. Psychotherapeutic treatments in late life. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2011;24(6):484-488.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21799413*

Pinquart M, et al. How effective are psychotherapeutic and other psychosocial interventions with older adults? A meta-analysis. Aging Ment Health 2001;7(2):207-243.
Online: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/232479156_How_effective_are_psychotherapeutic_and_other_psychosocial_interventions_with_older_adults_A_meta-analysis*

Sargent-Cox KA, et al. Change in health and self-perceptions of aging over 16 years: The role of psychological resources. Health Psychology 2012; 31(4): 423-432.
Online: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/02/14/geronb.gbt005.full

Vaillant GE & Mukamal K. Successful aging. American Journal of Psychiatry 2001; 158: 839-847.
Online: http://www.massgeneral.org/psychiatry/assets/published_papers/Vaillant-2001-AJP.pdf

Waldinger R, et al. Neural activity, neural connectivity, and the processing of emotionally-valenced information in older adults: Links with life satisfaction. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 2011; 11(3): 426-436.
Online: http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2Fs13415-011-0039-9

Wilson K, et al. Psychotherapeutic treatments for older depressed people, Cochrane Library 2009;1.
Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004853.pub2/pdf/abstract

Wurm S & Benyamini Y. Optimism buffers the detrimental effect of negative self-perceptions of aging on physical and mental health. Psychology & Health 2014; 29(7): 832-848.
Online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260215042_Optimism_buffers_the_detrimental_effect_of_negative_self-perceptions_of_ageing_on_physical_and_mental_health

Wurm S, et al. How do negative self-perceptions of aging become a self-fulfilling prophecy? Psychology and Aging 2013; 28(4): 1088-1097.
Online: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-35546-001/

Wurm S, Warner LM, Zeigelmann JP et al.  How do negative self-perceptions of aging become a self-fulfilling prophecy? Psychology and Aging 2013; 28(4): 1088-1097.
Online: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2013-35546-001/

 

Social Activity

Gilmour H. “Social participation and the health and well-being of Canadian seniors.” Stats Can Catalogue 82-003-X 2012.
Online: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-003-x/2012004/article/11720-eng.htm

Glass TA, et al. Social engagement and depressive symptoms in late life. J Aging Health 2006 Aug;18(4):604-28.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16835392*

Nicholson N. A review of social isolation: an important but underassessed condition in older adults. J Prim Prev 2012;33(2-3):137-152.
Online: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/769914_1

Fratiglioni L, et al. Influence of social network on the occurrence of dementia: a community-based longitudinal study. Lancet 2000; 355(9212):1315-1319.
Online: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(00)02113-9/fulltext*

Malone JC, et al. Adaptive midlife defense mechanisms and late-life health. Personality and Individual Differences 2013; 55(2): 85-89.
Online: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886913000718

Menec V. The relation between everyday activities and successful aging: A 6-year longitudinal study. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2003;58(2):S74-S82.
Online: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/58/2/S74.abstract*

Flatt J, et al. Participation in social activities in later life: does enjoyment have important implications for cognitive health? Aging Health 2013;9(2)149-158.
Online: http://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/abs/10.2217/ahe.13.11*

 

Physical Activity

Angevaren M, et al. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;3:CD005381.
Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005381.pub3/abstract

Ashworth NL, et al. Home versus center based physical activity programs in older adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;1:CD004017.
Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004017.pub2/abstract

Ceolim MF, et al. Sleep/wake cycle and physical activity in healthy elderly people. Sleep Res Online 2000;3(3):87-95.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11382906*

Chen KM, et al. Pilot-testing the effects of a newly-developed silver yoga exercise program for female seniors. J Nurs Res, 2008;16(1):37-46.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18348106*

Gillespie LD., et al. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;9:CD007146.
Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007146.pub3/abstract

Hoglund BR, et al. Engagement in life activities promote healthy aging in men. J Mens Health 2009;6(4):354-365.
Online: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875686709003327*

Howe TE, et al. Exercise for improving balance in older people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev  2011;11:CD004963.
Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004963.pub3/otherversions

Jerome GJ, et al. Physical activity participation by presence and type of functional deficits in older women: The women’s Health and aging studies.J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006;61(11):1171-6.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17167158*

Lautenschlager NT, et al. Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial. JAMA 2008;300(9):1027-1037.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18768414*

Matoff-Stepp S. Findings and recommendations from the interim evaluation of the bright futures for women’s health and wellness physical activity and healthy eating tools.Health Promot Pract 2012;13(1):55-62.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21300858*

Nagamatsu LS, et al. Resistance training promotes cognitive and functional brain plasticity in seniors with probable mild cognitive impairment. Arch Intern Med 2012;172(8):666-668.
Online: http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1135414

Perrin PP, et al. Effects of physical and sporting activities on balance control in elderly people. Br J Sports Med 1991;33:121-126.
Online: http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/33/2/121.full.pdf+html

Rockwood K, et al. Physical activity and the maintenance of cognitive function. Alzheimers Dement 2007;3(2 Suppl), S38-44.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19595973*

Sargent-Cox KA et al. The relationship between change in self-perceptions of aging and physical functioning in older adults. Psychology & Aging 2012; 27(3): 750-760.
Online: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/pag/27/3/750/

Schutzer KA, et al. Barriers and motivations to exercise in older adults. Preventive Medicine 2004;39(5):1056-1061.
Online: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743504002026*

Shephard RJ. Physical activity and the healthy mind. CMAJ 1983;128:525-530.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1874986/pdf/canmedaj01386-0027.pdf

Thorp AA, et al. Sedentary behaviors and subsequent health outcomes in adults: a systematic review of longitudinal studies, 1996-2011. Am J Prev Med 2011;41(2):207-15.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21767729*

Vaillant GE & Mukamal K. Successful aging. American Journal of Psychiatry 2001; 158: 839-847.
Online: http://www.massgeneral.org/psychiatry/assets/published_papers/Vaillant-2001-AJP.pdf

Wolff JK et al. What do targeting positive views on aging add to a physical activity intervention in older adults? Results from a randomized control trial. Health Psychology 2014; 29(8): 915-923.
Online: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08870446.2014.896464?journalCode=gpsh20

 

Mental Health

Cassidy KL, et al. The silent geriatric giant: anxiety disorders in late life. Geriatrics and Aging 2008; 11(3):150-156.
Online: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/579825

Gallo J, et al. The Epidemiology of Common Late-Life Mental Disorders in the Community: Themes for the New Century. Psychiatric Services 1999:50(9).
Online: ps.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=83333

Grossman P, et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta analysis. J Psychosom Res 2004;57(1):35-43.
Online: ac.els-cdn.com/S0022399903005737/1-s2.0-S0022399903005737-main.pdf?_tid=8f5e1514-1986-11e3-a7150000aab0f6c&acdnat=1378755327_8d53a8bc0a1a737113bb823c1f20bf34

Jeste DV, Palmer BW. A call for a new positive psychiatry of aging. British Journal of Psychiatry 2013; 20(2); 81-83.
Online: http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/202/2/81

Jeste DV, et al. Older age is associated with more successful aging: role of resilience and depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 2013; 170(2): 188-196.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3593664/

Jeste DV, et al. Successful cognitive and emotional aging. World psychiatry 2010; 9(2): 78-84.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2912035/

Kato K, et al. Positive attitude towards life and emotional expression as personality phenotypes for centenarians. Aging 2012;4(5):359-67.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22626632*

Levy B, et al. Longitudinal benefit of positive self-perceptions of aging on functional health. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2002;57B(5):409-17.
Online: psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/57/5/P409.full.pdf+html*

Meeks T, et al. Neurobiology of wisdom: A literature overview. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009;66(4):355-365.
Online: geropsych.ucsd.edu/NeurobiologyofWisdom.pdf

Meisner BA. A meta-analysis of positive and negative age stereotype priming effects on behavior among older adults. The Journal of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 2012; 67(1): 13-17.
Online: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/67B/1/13.full.pdf

Buchanan D, et al. National guidelines for seniors’ mental health: The assessment and treatment of depression. Can Geriatr J 2006;9(2):S52-S58.
Online: http://www.ccsmh.ca/pdf/final%20supplement.pdf

Cassidy KL, et al. The silent geriatric giant: Anxiety disorders in late life. Geriatrics and Aging 2008;11(3):150-156.
Online: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/579825

Hogan DB, et al. National guidelines for seniors’ mental health: The assessment and treatment of delirium. Can Geriatr J 2006;9(2):S42-S51.
Online: http://www.ccsmh.ca/pdf/final%20supplement.pdf

Buchanan D, et al. National guidelines for seniors’ mental health: The assessment and treatment of mental health issues in long-term care homes (focus on mood and behaviour symptoms). Can Geriatr J 2006;9(2):S59-S64.
Online: http://www.ccsmh.ca/pdf/final%20supplement.pdf

Hogan DB, et al. Recommendations of the canadian consensus conference on dementia – dissemination, implementation, and evaluation of impact. Can J Neurol Sci 2001;28(Suppl 1):S115-21.
Online: http://cjns.metapress.com/content/ul7pewvp2k8gyabb/fulltext.pdf

Baycrest Hospital’s website on late-life depression.

 

Lifelong Learning

Cheng ST, et al. Mental and Physical Activities Delay Cognitive Decline in Older Persons With Dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2013.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23131991*

Kesse-Guyot E, et al. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of different sedentary behaviours with cognitive performance in older adults. PLoS One 2012;7(10):e47831
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23082222*

Miller KJ, et al. Effect of a computerized brain exercise program on cognitive performance in older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2013;21(7):655-63.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23602310*

Reijnders J, et al. Cognitive interventions in healthy older adults and people with mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review. Ageing Res Rev 2013;12(1):263-275. Online: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568163712000979

Smith GE, et al. A cognitive training program based on principles of brain plasticity: results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2009;57(4):594-603.
Online: https://wiki.umn.edu/pub/LNPI/ExpertPanelPublications/G_Smith_-_A_cognitive_training_program_based_on_principles_of_brain_plasticity_results_from_the_Improvement_in_Memory_with_Plasticity-based_Adaptive_Cognitive_Training_study..pdf

Valenzuela M, et al. Can cognitive exercise prevent the onset of dementia? Systematic review of randomized clinical trials with longitudinal follow-up. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry  2009;17(3):179-87.
Online: http://rng.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/2009-Can-Cognitive-Exercise-Prevent-the-Onset-of-Dementia-Systematic-Review-of-Randomized-Clinical-Trials-with-Longitudinal-Follow-up.pdf

Verghese J, et al. Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly. N Engl J Med 2003;348(25):2508-2516.
Online: www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa022252

Waldinger R, et al. Neural activity, neural connectivity, and the processing of emotionally-valenced information in older adults: Links with life satisfaction. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 2011; 11(3): 426-436.
Online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3733466/

Wilson RS, et al. Participation in cognitively stimulating activities and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. JAMA 2002;287(6):742-748.
Online: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=194636